The territory of Estonia covers 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The Estonians are a Finnic people, and the official language, Estonian, is a Finno-Ugric language closely related to Finnish and distantly to Hungarian. With a population of 1.29 million, it is one of the least-populous member nations of the European Union. Largest ethnic groups: Estonians (69%), Russians (26%), Ukrainians (2%), Belarussians (1%) and Finns (1%).

The capital of Estonia is Tallinn (400 thousand inhabitants or 29.8% of total population). Other large cities and population (thousands):

  • Tartu – 103 300
  • Narva – 65 900
  • Kohtla-Järve – 44 500
  • Pärnu – 44 000



Lithuania is the largest of the three Baltic states. It borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) to the southwest. The Lithuanians are a Baltic people, and the official language, Lithuanian, is one of only two living languages (together with Latvian) in the Baltic branch of the Indo-European language family.

During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe: present-day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

Lithuania has an estimated population of 3 million as of 2012, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius (542 thousand inhabitants). Other large cities and population (thousands):

  • Kaunas – 336,912
  • Klaipeda – 177,812
  • Siauliai – 120,969
  • Panevezys – 109,028